An improved optical flow tracking technique for real-time MR-guided beam therapies in moving organs.

TitleAn improved optical flow tracking technique for real-time MR-guided beam therapies in moving organs.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsZachiu, C, Papadakis, N, Ries, M, Moonen, C, B de Senneville, D
JournalPhys Med Biol
Volume60
Issue23
Pagination9003-29
Date Published2015 Dec 7
ISSN1361-6560
Abstract

Magnetic resonance (MR) guided high intensity focused ultrasound and external beam radiotherapy interventions, which we shall refer to as beam therapies/interventions, are promising techniques for the non-invasive ablation of tumours in abdominal organs. However, therapeutic energy delivery in these areas becomes challenging due to the continuous displacement of the organs with respiration. Previous studies have addressed this problem by coupling high-framerate MR-imaging with a tracking technique based on the algorithm proposed by Horn and Schunck (H and S), which was chosen due to its fast convergence rate and highly parallelisable numerical scheme. Such characteristics were shown to be indispensable for the real-time guidance of beam therapies. In its original form, however, the algorithm is sensitive to local grey-level intensity variations not attributed to motion such as those that occur, for example, in the proximity of pulsating arteries.In this study, an improved motion estimation strategy which reduces the impact of such effects is proposed. Displacements are estimated through the minimisation of a variation of the H and S functional for which the quadratic data fidelity term was replaced with a term based on the linear L(1)norm, resulting in what we have called an L(2)-L(1) functional.The proposed method was tested in the livers and kidneys of two healthy volunteers under free-breathing conditions, on a data set comprising 3000 images equally divided between the volunteers. The results show that, compared to the existing approaches, our method demonstrates a greater robustness to local grey-level intensity variations introduced by arterial pulsations. Additionally, the computational time required by our implementation make it compatible with the work-flow of real-time MR-guided beam interventions.To the best of our knowledge this study was the first to analyse the behaviour of an L(1)-based optical flow functional in an applicative context: real-time MR-guidance of beam therapies in moving organs.

DOI10.1088/0031-9155/60/23/9003
Alternate JournalPhys Med Biol
PubMed ID26540256